The SDLC, which is widely used in HIT project management, guides the design, implementation, and evaluation process, creating many opportunities to develop and validate research hypotheses. The SDLC is a unidirectional cycle that directs the planning, analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance of a nursing informatics innovation within the IROM. The IROM incorporates evaluation as an iterative step, systems development life cycle in healthcare implying that evaluation is continuous and diffused at many stages in the innovation process. Outcomes evaluated with the IROM can include the information flow, knowledge, quality of decisions, and the effect of actions taken to improve quality, safety, satisfaction, and cost (Effken, 2003). Evaluation can be carried out using logic models, program evaluation methods, or formal research studies.
Comparing with the previous models presented by Stockdale and Standing  and by Andargoli et al. , this framework adds the order in which the answers to the questions “what, how, when, why and who” must be found. It is again worth noting that the implementation method, Parallel Installation, follows from the SDLC and is what is taught in modern-day SAD courses. Thus, it was satisfying to the researchers that textbook concepts were being utilized in “real world” situations. It also reinforced that teaching the SDLC was in line with current curriculum guidelines and should continue. Ideally, the used legal software has to fulfill the requirements of the IEC concerning risks as well, but the scope of action only demands closing gaps if it reduces the risk of usage. The IEEE defines implementation as translating a design into hardware or software components, or both.42 In particular, the detailed design has to be translated into source code.
There are two additional tools that can be incorporated by nurses working in UCD to support clear requirements gathering in digital health intervention research, user-stories and personas. Used in combination with the proposed framework, this data suite provides a sound foundation for the successful completion of software development within a research endeavour. Defining an accurate Software Development Plan is the first key component and must be updated regularly during the project, referenced, and defined in the entire software life cycle model.
A course in Systems Analysis and Design is requisite in most Management Information Systems programs (Topi, Valacich, Wright, Kaiser, Nunamaker, Sipior, and de Vreede, 2010). As this paper will show, following the steps and stages of the methodology is still a valid method of insuring the successful deployment of software. While the SDLC, and systems analysis and design in general, has evolved over the years, at its heart it remains a robust methodology for developing software and systems.
The analysis phase also
involved the allocation of all of the needed resources for the CBI system
development and implementation, including the acquisition of the back-end and
front-end hardware and software. Moreover, the phase involved finalizing the site
agreement that was necessary for formalizing the project between Nova Southeastern
University (NSU) and BRHPC. In order to become more engaged in design, especially when the planned outcome is a new digital solution, nurses require a foundational understanding of UCD and practical tools that can enhance their disciplinary contribution to these processes.
This work produced a set of guiding design principles advocating that design go beyond improvement in pursuit of innovation and be done with and for people, in an holistic approach recognising that most living is done outside of formal care encounters (Wolstenholme et al., 2017). The analytic framework and recommended research process were developed over the course of two projects each employing a similar collaborative mixed-methods design. Primary methodological drivers were drawn from the software development life-cycle and Interpretive Description in these digital health intervention studies. The development plan process describes the general documentation required for a product or project.
Roles and Responsibilities
Connect Diabetes and ml SMART aimed to increase patient-provider communication to facilitate patient-centered care. The social context of both studies facilitated the connection of patient data from mobile devices to providers. NEC-Zero aimed for distributed decision making in the NICU, which supports the development of its decision support tool. EnTICE3 aimed to improve the communication of research results from the researcher to the research participant. More recently, the Federal HIT Strategic Plan (2015–2020) from the ONC outlines how the federal government aims to use HIT to leverage lower costs while achieving higher quality care and greater engagement from the population (ONC, 2015). The ONC’s shared nationwide interoperability roadmap further highlights the importance of integrating patient-generated health data into care delivery and research (ONC, 2018).
- At this phase, there is a risk of “scope creep” such that system enhancements that go beyond the charter and project management plan may be identified.
- Data alert messages can be
sent by email or through short message service (SMS), i.e. text messages.
- Although these evaluation processes have a relationship of dependency (since the result of the former will in some way influence the result of the latter), evaluation studies are often conducted by different interest groups, sometimes even in different research disciplines.
- The look and feel of this tool is similar to the
popular office software, Microsoft Excel, which shortens the learning curve for the
- The data
mining component of the system has a number of prediction models that can assist in
the planning process.
- This function is different because it is
triggered only by time, not by changes in the data.
The Hospital Utilization database collects
detailed inpatient and emergency department data from hospitals across the state. These data sets are accessible online, thus improving program efficiency and
overall functionality including utilizing data to make capacity and quality related
decisions. It was expanded to become a strategic planning tool for
health care administrators to assess variances in utilization.
NYC Macroscope, EHRs and population health surveillance
CBI systems have the potential to offers
HCO with valuable insights for improving patient care, tracking trends for
medical research, and better controlling costs. A gap analysis study has been conducted to evaluate the technological divide
between the relevant users and FHWD health data, which is maintained by the
Broward Regional Health Planning Council (BRHPC). The study revealed a gap
between the health care data and the decision makers that utilize the FHDW
data. To bridge the gap, a CBI system was proposed, developed and
implemented by BRHPC as a viable solution to address this issue, using the
System Development Life Cycle methodology.
This study is limited in this regard; the sample populations of interest in both groups is very small. As might be expected, the number of senior healthcare executives in British Columbia is already a small group, and adding the requirement of a nursing background further limited the potential sample size. There are very few individuals meeting the inclusion criteria for this project, from both groups. Both the survey and interview method were considered to be the best options for this project, and both could have been used to address the problem statement and research questions. A survey methodology can provide needed structure to the research process, ensures a consistent approach, and offers the opportunity to perform descriptive statistical analysis (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2010). The process of acquiring or upgrading an electronic information systems includes an initial investigation, systems analysis, iterations of design, system implementation, and finally, on-going maintenance.
Vivian Singletary and David Addiss on big data and consumer health privacy
This term incorporates the role of both patients and practitioners as equal and active collaborators in the full scope of the design process (Kildea et al., 2019). The pursuit of participatory stakeholder co-design holds additional value from a nursing perspective as the discipline continues to experience the delivery of technological innovation into practice settings without consultation or opportunities for design collaboration. Configuration and change management is crucial in ensuring usability, reproducibility, reusability, and traceability of software in the industry and academia. However, the original requirement within the specification must always be bidirectionally linked to allow traceability. This means that traceability implies the comprehension of a design, starting with the source of a requirement, its implementation, testing, and maintenance.
Task/expectation complexity, user variances, and organizational support are factors that influence the use of the system, but are not problems of the system itself, and need to be differentiated from system-related issues. Theoretical frameworks/models are essential to research studies, suggesting rationale for hypothesized relationships and providing the basis for verification. However, the majority of publications in this review lacked an explicit theoretical framework/model. This is consistent with a previous literature review of evaluation designs for health information systems.10 Most theoretical frameworks used were adapted from HCI, information system management, or cognitive behavioral science. In addition, there are no clear guidelines or recommendations for the utilization of a theoretical framework in health IT usability studies. In the original IROM, context is defined as a complex, multifaceted concept that exists within the cultural, economic, social, and physical environment of the intervention.
Benefits of a Well-Defined System Development Life Cycle
The prototype in this stage allowed validate de functionalities previously identified and find new requirements. This project, and case study, was an application of pedagogy on a real-world systems analysis project. First, it showed that concepts learned in a classroom environment (such as the SDLC in the systems analysis and design course) can be effectively applied in a business (or in our case, a health care) environment. It was very satisfying for us, as business school professors, to see instructional topics successfully employed to solve a real-world problem.